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12月2 日SAT 考前答疑干货---写作卜小路老师

2017-12-01 09:55:09 来源:江博教育 作者:江博教育

 写作有几点跟大家分享一下:

1. 文章的长度:尽量写到第四页上,文章的结构以5-3-10,或者6-4-12为准。

2. 开头段和正文段+结尾段的分配:开头段 lead - link - thesis (6-8行)正文段:topic sentence + analysis (what-why-what结构) + closing sentence (每个正文段12-15行)结尾段 summary + restatement + reader's feedback (4-6行)正文段 12-15 或者以上 *

3. 写作手法的选用:evidence / reasoning / stylistic elements 从这三方面下手,但是并不是要求大家每项都选一个。选取的标准:1,和文章后方框的主旨最相关 2,你可以准确判断和进行分析

4. 写作手法的出现顺序:最有说服力的放在最前面,辅助作用的放在后面。比如:建议evidence,structure,reasoning 等放在正文一段,二段。其他修辞手法,或者作者语气,写作风格,措辞等放在第三个正文段。

5. 关于正文段中quote原文的注意事项:原文要有,用引号表明,但切忌大段抄写。利用好what-why-what的原则,把原文内容控制在分析内容的三分之一以内。除了引号,大家也可以使用破折号,冒号要衔接quote

6. 注意段间关系和段内关系:逻辑词,逻辑词,逻辑词的使用!!!非常重要!!!

7. 词汇替换:除了点题部分需要大家不断替换之外,还有一个常用词的替换。比如下图,同学总结出来的一个表格,

 

分享给大家:

一些开头句或者常用表达如下:

Reasoning & stylistic or persuasive elements:

11. Invoking the most powerful ...makes it clear that this is a national issue, lending the argument urgency and importance.

12. By stating he has been active in this cause fora long time the author grants himself the legitimacy of a first-hand witness to support his claim that the idea of ... is gaining support.

13. The author ends the article by suing his personal experience to position himself as a legitimate authority on...

 

1. In response to ...... writer argues that ...... he effectively builds his argument by using.....

2. The author starts his article off by recounting a personal story......

3. By drawing in his reader with a personal encounter about..., the author means to establish ...

4. The author makes subtle yet efficient use of rhetorical questioning to persuade his audience that ...

5. This strategy is definitely an appeal to pathos, forcing the audience to directly face an emotionally-changed inquiry that will surely spur some kind of response.

6. By doing this, the author develops his argument, adding guttural power to the idea that the issue of is relevant and multifaceted.

 

1. In this article, the author makes an argument claiming that...

2. Strategies the author employs to support his argument include citation of compelling polls, reports made by prominent organizations that have issued studies, and a quotation form a prominent author.

3. In the introduction paragraph, the author employs a distinct contrast between ... and ...

4. The author is able to build his point with the agreement of a respectful individual. He then immediately follows a statement that ...

5. This dual utilization it claims from two separate sources conveys to the audience the sense that ...

 

1. The writer uses evidence from an authoritative source to support his claim that......, suggesting that the dangers outweigh the benefits.

2. Placing this statistic in the first sentence adds urgency to his pleas.

3. The author acknowledges that/demonstrates that...

4. Vivid word choices such as ... dramatize that ...

5. After listing concrete examples of ... , the author summarize his point that...

6. The author uses statistics from another authoritative source to support/ back up his claim that ...

7. By claiming that his solution is increasing in popularity, the author portrays his argument as viable.

8. Careful word choice makes his cause seem righteous.

9. Referring to a specific event from as recently as a week ago makes the subject seem very timely.

10. The specific example of ... underscores his points with vivid descriptions The descriptions reinforce the idea...

 

 

source 基本上都是OG范文总结的句子,大家可以借鉴到自己作文里。

问答环节:

问:5 3 10和6 4 12是什么啊?

答:全文 5 段 - 3个写作手法 + 10次点题,或者 6段 4个写作手法 12次点题

 

问:老师 怎么利用文章Structure来说明它的说服力呢

答: 文章的结构:比如在论述强调自己观点之前,作者先使用让步,concession,在某种程度上把客观存在的另一方的观点先陈述出来,然后再rebut。 所以,先让步后转折的结构,会让作者转折后的观点更有说服力。另外,有的文章结构或者论述的逻辑是二分法,(dichotomy )比如在 The digital parent trap 这篇文章里~

 

问:想问下在分析语气方面有什么方法或者例子嘛 都有什么样的语气可以分析呢?

答:作者语气tone这类一般需要对文章的理解很准确,比如在 Beyond Vietnam这篇里面,作者在提到对黑人的不公平的时候,使用的大量的irony,还有在结尾段的部分提到autopsy 这些作者的语气显然是Ironic

问:哦哦除了irony还有哪些呢?irony其实感觉比较难看出来,即使看出来了可能也不敢写怕是想多了...

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答:除了ironic之外,还有:I quote from wikipedia: "When we speak, our tone of voice conveys our mood—frustrated, cheerful, critical, gloomy, or angry. When we write, our images and descriptive phrases get our feelings across—guarded optimism, unqualified enthusiasm, objective indifference, resignation, or dissatisfaction. Other examples of literary tone are: airy, comic, condescending, facetious, funny, heavy, intimate, ironic, light, playful, sad, serious, sinister, solemn, somber, threatening."

其实很多时候我们可以从emotional appeals (pathos)上面分析,主要是情感的表达,作者的tone可以表现出来emotion,这个部分是属于辅助作用

问:哦哦好 我看之前一篇范文上有一段分析的是definitive and authoritative tone,这种分析起来好么?那也就是说可以在分析pathos穿插tone呗?感觉也可以穿插个diction?

答:对。

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问:老师能解释一下什么是二分法吗

答:两分法就是把双方的观点都很客观的表述出来,把各方原因都列举出来,双方观点可以引发读者思考。这篇文章是个典型的二分法逻辑。

 

但是 全文作者是有偏向性,所以在第七段 有But 转折之后是更多作者观点的支持论据和论证。

问:那二分法的好处主要是客观?

答:对的,二分法首先作者是balanced 的观点,因为话题本身就有很大争议性,所以,如果上去一下子把对方观点一棒子打死的话,很多读者不买账啊。。。哈哈,所以,和让步的手法很像,文章有客观性,然而转折之后,会让作者的观点更有力。想想看,一般我们会说:虽然,,,但是,,,强调的一定是但是后面的内容,对不对?虽然李江老师年老色衰,但是依旧是我们的男神!表白老板~

但是,注意,一般二分法的作者在结尾的时候一般不会给直接绝对的定论,通常语气比较mild,正如这个例子的最后结尾。

是的。diction很大程度上就是为了tone 服务。所以,只要是在persuasive elements 的范畴,都可以穿插一点。但是我建议,整个正文段的开头还是应该写清楚主要讨论的手法是什么。在分析细节的时候当然可以提一下也无妨。

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问:老师这一部分没太看懂,什么叫做what why what的原则,然后怎么用破折号冒号衔接?

答:

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第二个问题 破折号和冒号的使用,可以很灵活。冒号的作用也可以是引出下文,或者解释说明。当要引用原文quote的时候,可以直接引用,或者用破折号,冒号引出。

OG文章:Let there be dark 的sample范文中有破折号的使用

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问:直接引用是指用引号吗?
答:对。就算有破折号或者冒号连接,引用原文的部分也要用引号。

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目前手边没有冒号的截图,但是可以改写一下这句:Bogard starts his article off by recounting a personal story. He describes a summer spent on a Minnesota lake with detailed phrases: “woods so dark that [his] hands disappeared before [his] eyes.”还有注意引号里面的方括号的使用。当引用部分需要有语法或者人称等细微改变时,需要用方括号标注一下。

 

问:What why what段落内部分析能再讲讲嘛?
答:what就是把正文段的要分写的写作手法相对应的原文细节写出来,也就是quote原文。这个部分,可以是直接quote,或者paraphrase,或者二者结合。注意引用原文时,只挑出来必要的,有用的部分,不用全段或者全句抄写。

why 是从作者角度分析,为什么要用这个手法,比如 statistics 作者目的就是为了把solid statistical evidence呈现出来,numbers do not lie这样他想要试图说明的问题严重性,或者现象普遍性可以表达的更有力。

what 是从读者角度出发,来个分析这个写作手法让读者有什么感受,通过数据,或者权威,或者修辞等,读者可以更相信作者的观点,因为source可靠?数据真实?逻辑合理?等。这样的话,读者可能更容易和作者产生共鸣。resonate, sympathize ...

 

问:appeal to emotion的作用主要是在于呼吁读者嘛 什么情况下很明显是appeal to emotion呢?
答:appeals to emotion 尤其出现在明显的 连续有first person pronoun(we,let's)作者会呼吁读者(call for action)或者 second person pronoun(you)作者 invite the readers to 。。。或者 speak directly to the audience 这样的话,emotional connection更强烈。

还有 word diction, 或者作者在文中提到 future, grandchildren,national legacy等 也是很大程度上为了引起读者共鸣。

当然,还有感叹号,反问句出现的时候,或者带有很强的感情色彩的形容词连续出现的时候,都是strong emotional appeals

 

问:老师推荐正文段落背模版吗?

 

答:不推荐。可以把正文段中开头句,结尾句的套路借鉴一下,一些常用表达词的替换背一下,但是不要整段背模板。

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